LL37 Peptide For Sale here for research into treating inflammation, and infection. We have a huge range of research peptides available and at competitive prices. All of our research chemicals are safe, and additive free. Data from research shows LL-37 peptide is capable of eradicating pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, parasite and viruses. The research peptide LL-37 is a cationic peptide consisting of 37 amino acids. It is a research peptide intended for laboratory and educational use only. It is not for human use.
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For those in the research and science community looking for a wide choice of research products we can help. We supply the best US-made peptides, amino acids, and proteins online. All of them are made leading manufacturer Peptide Sciences. The products are tested, and safe for all research use. Whether it is LL37 peptide, or AICAR to Vialox, we sell a huge range of specialist research chemicals to research facilities. Make sure you browse our online store now, and see for yourself.
If you are asking the question what is LL-37 acetate, read on for a more in-depth guide to just how LL37 is showing good results in treating skin conditions such as psoriasis.
What Does Peptide LL-37 do?
From research, it is now clear that autoimmune processes play a leading role in developing psoriasis. The intense skin infiltration achieves it by almost all immune system cells. These cells are activated and intensively produce pro-inflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1P, IL-23, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, IL-20, interferon (IFN )-y, IFN-α.
Various cytokines or their combinations act at different stages of the inflammatory process. Keratinocytes are also activated, producing pro-inflammatory cytokines. Excess synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines is a leading cause of psoriatic inflammation. However, it is not clear what induces their increased synthesis.
What do Antimicrobial Peptides Do?
According to research, a complex of self-nucleic acids (auto-NA) and the antimicrobial peptide LL-37, a cleavage product of cathelicidin hCAP-18, is involved in developing psoriasis. Cathelicidin hCAP-18 (human cationic antimicrobial peptide) synthesizes in neutrophils, keratinocytes, respiratory epithelial cells as an inactive precursor, consisting of an N-terminal cathelin-like and C-terminal antimicrobial domains. During exocytosis of leukocytes, protease-3 cleaves cathelicidin to form the cationic peptide LL-37, composed of 37 amino acid residues and two leucine residues at the N-terminus.
The inactive precursor is cleaved in keratinocytes to form the active peptide LL-37 by the serine protease kallikrein. Peptide LL-37 has antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties due to the electrostatic interaction of LL-37 with cell membranes.
What do Cathelicidins do?
Peptides accumulate and orient themselves parallel to the surface of the target membrane. Then they electrostatically interact with anionic groups of phospholipid heads in many areas, covering the membrane-like carpet. Thus, concentration is reached, through-holes form to target membrane, which leads to cell lysis. Therefore, according to data, the LC50 of the LL-37 peptide for Staphylococcus aureus was 1.4 ± 1.2 µg/mL.
LL-37 Peptide side effects
At these doses, the peptide is not toxic to human blood cells but has various immunotropic effects on them. At a concentration 20–50 times higher than for microbes, the LL-37 peptide also has a cytotoxic effect on eukaryotic cells. So, the mechanism of the cytotoxic effect is identical to the bactericidal one.
The higher sensitivity of bacteria to the bactericidal action of the LL-37 peptide is associated with a greater negative charge of the bacterial cell wall than that of the membrane of eukaryotic cells. Typically, the synthesis of cathelicidin in keratinocytes is minimal in the unprocessed form, weighing 18 kD. In psoriasis, the content of cathelicidin in the skin is sharply increased compared to the same.
The skin of patients with atopic dermatitis or healthy people, and all of it is in a processed form in the form of a peptide LL-37 mol. Mass 4.5 kD. The concentration of the LL-37 peptide in all epidermis layers in psoriasis is sharply increased (average 304 µmol). This peptide is also present at a high concentration in the dermis, where it is in close contact with plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC).
The content of the LL-37 peptide increases with skin damage and various stressful situations, which gave grounds to attribute it to alarm signals. This peptide is a chemoattractant for neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic cells, and T-lymphocytes; it promotes the maturation of dendritic cells and the development of a T-cell immune response. It stimulates angiogenesis in the skin, induces the synthesis and release of many cytokines, chemokines, and histamine, promotes proliferation, migration of keratinocytes, and wound re-epithelialization.
LL-37 Peptide Benefits
Its amount sharply increases during wound healing, which led some authors to call the LL-37 peptide a keratinocyte growth factor. The question remains how free NCs can appear in the skin. In principle, they should degrade fast by extracellular nucleases. NK can occur in the extracellular space with bruises, pressure, minor skin lesions.
The development of psoriasis begins with some minor damage to the skin or after a bruise. NK can also appear in the extracellular space due to leakage from senescent or apoptotic cells. Especially in cases where the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells reduce. Further, events may develop as follows:
When free NAs appear in the extracellular space, the LL-37 peptide instantly forms a complex with them based on electrostatic interaction. This complex is stable and resistant to the action of nucleases. In addition, free DNA or RNA is poorly exposed to endocytosis by eukaryotic cells.